Timothy Cleaveland is the author of Becoming Walata: A History of Saharan Social Formation and Transformation. He has also published articles in the Journal of African History, the Canadian Journal of African Studies and the Journal of North African Studies. He is currently working on a history of race, gender and slavery in Islamic West Africa, and is particularly interested in how milk-kinship affected the social relations of slavery. This research was partially funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities. Free digital copies of his most recent essay, "Ahmad Baba al-Timbukti and his Islamic critique of racial slavery in the Maghrib" are available through the link below:
Taylor & Francis Online :: Ahmad Baba al-Timbukti and his Islamic critique of racial slavery in the Maghrib - The Journal of North African Studies - Volume 20, Issue 1 (2015). Ahmad Baba al-Timbukti and his Islamic critique of racial slavery in the Maghrib. The Journal of North African Studies: Vol. 20, The Southern Shores of the Mediterranean and its Networks: Knowledge, Trade, Culture and People, pp. 42-64. doi: 10.1080/13629387.2014.983825
Cleaveland, Timothy. “Ahmad Baba Al-Timbukti And His Islamic Critique Of Racial Slavery In The Maghrib”. The Journal of North African Studies Vol. 20.1 (2015): 42-64. Web.
Cleaveland, Timothy. Becoming Walata: A History Of Saharan Social Formation And Transformation. Heinemann, 2001. Web.
Ph.D., Northwestern University, Africa 1995